California English Language Development Standards

  • Interacting in Meaningful Ways (586)
    • Collaborative (engagement in dialogue with others) (263)
    • Interpretive (comprehension and analysis of written and spoken texts) (259)
    • Productive (creation of oral presentations and written texts) (64)
      • Expressing information and ideas in formal oral presentations on academic topics (6)
        • ELD.PI.K.9.Em (2)
          Plan and deliver very brief oral presentations (e.g., show and tell, describing a picture).
        • ELD.PI.K.9.Ex (2)
          Plan and deliver brief oral presentations on a variety of topics (e.g., show and tell, author's chair, recounting an experience, describing an animal).
        • ELD.PI.K.9.Br (2)
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics in a variety of content areas (e.g., retelling a story, describing a science experiment).
        • ELD.PI.1.9.Em
          Plan and deliver very brief oral presentations (e.g., show and tell, describing a picture).
        • ELD.PI.1.9.Ex
          Plan and deliver brief oral presentations on a variety of topics (e.g., show and tell, author's chair, recounting an experience, describing an animal, and the like).
        • ELD.PI.1.9.Br
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics in a variety of content areas (e.g., retelling a story, describing a science experiment).
        • ELD.PI.2.9.Em
          Plan and deliver very brief oral presentations (e.g., recounting an experience, retelling a story, describing a picture).
        • ELD.PI.2.9.Ex
          Plan and deliver brief oral presentations on a variety of topics (e.g., retelling a story, describing an animal).
        • ELD.PI.2.9.Br
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics and content areas (e.g., retelling a story, recounting a science experiment, describing how to solve a mathematics problem).
        • ELD.PI.3.9.Em
          Plan and deliver very brief oral presentations (e.g., retelling a story, describing an animal, and the like).
        • ELD.PI.3.9.Ex
          Plan and deliver brief oral presentations on a variety of topics and content areas (e.g., retelling a story, explaining a science process, and the like).
        • ELD.PI.3.9.Br
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics and content areas (e.g., retelling a story, explaining a science process or historical event, and the like.
        • ELD.PI.4.9.Em
          Plan and deliver brief oral presentations on a variety of topics and content areas (e.g., retelling a story, explaining a science process, reporting on a current event, recounting a memorable experience, and so on), with substantial support.
        • ELD.PI.4.9.Ex
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics and content areas (e.g., retelling a story, explaining a science process, reporting on a current event, recounting a memorable experience, and so on), with moderate support.
        • ELD.PI.4.9.Br
          Plan and deliver oral presentations on a variety of topics in a variety of content areas (e.g., retelling a story, explaining a science process, reporting on a current event, recounting a memorable experience, and so on), with light support.
        • ELD.PI.5.9.Em
          Plan and deliver brief oral presentations on a variety of topics and content areas (e.g., providing a report on a current event, reciting a poem, recounting an experience, explaining a science process), with moderate support, such as graphic organizers.
        • ELD.PI.5.9.Ex
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics and content areas (e.g., providing an opinion speech on a current event, reciting a poem, recounting an experience, explaining a science process), with moderate support.
        • ELD.PI.5.9.Br
          Plan and deliver oral presentations on a variety of topics in a variety of content areas (e.g., providing an opinion speech on a current event, reciting a poem, recounting an experience, explaining a science process), with light support.
        • ELD.PI.6.9.Em
          Plan and deliver brief oral presentations on a variety of topics and content areas.
        • ELD.PI.6.9.Ex
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics and content areas, using details and evidence to support ideas.
        • ELD.PI.6.9.Br
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics and content areas, using reasoning and evidence to support ideas, as well as growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.7.9.Em
          Plan and deliver brief informative oral presentations on familiar topics.
        • ELD.PI.7.9.Ex
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics, using details and evidence to support ideas.
        • ELD.PI.7.9.Br
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics in a variety of disciplines, using reasoning and evidence to support ideas, as well as growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.8.9.Em
          Plan and deliver brief informative oral presentations on concrete topics.
        • ELD.PI.8.9.Ex
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of topics using details and evidence to support ideas.
        • ELD.PI.8.9.Br
          Plan and deliver longer oral presentations on a variety of concrete and abstract topics using reasoning and evidence to support ideas and using a growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.9.Em
          Plan and deliver brief oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate topics that present evidence and facts to support ideas.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.9.Ex
          Plan and deliver a variety of oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate topics that present evidence and facts to support ideas by using growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.9.Br
          Plan and deliver a variety of oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate topics that express complex and abstract ideas well supported by evidence and sound reasoning, and are delivered using an appropriate level of formality and understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.9.Em
          Plan and deliver brief oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate topics that present evidence and facts to support ideas.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.9.Ex
          Plan and deliver a variety of oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate topics that present evidence and facts to support ideas by using growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.9.Br
          Plan and deliver a variety of oral presentations and reports on grade-appropriate topics that express complex and abstract ideas, well supported by evidence and reasoning, and are delivered by using an appropriate level of formality and understanding of register.
      • Composing/writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using appropriate technology (3)
        • ELD.PI.K.10.Em (1)
          Draw, dictate, and write to compose very short literary texts (e.g., story) and informational texts (e.g., a description of a dog), using familiar vocabulary collaboratively in shared language activities with an adult (e.g., joint construction of texts), with peers, and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PI.K.10.Ex (1)
          Draw, dictate, and write to compose short literary texts (e.g., story) and informational texts (e.g., a description of dogs), collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint construction of texts), with peers, and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PI.K.10.Br (1)
          Draw, dictate, and write to compose longer literary texts (e.g., story) and informational texts (e.g., an information report on dogs), collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint construction of texts), with peers, and independently using appropriate text organization.
      • Writing literary and informational texts to present, describe, and explain ideas and information, using appropriate technology (24)
        • ELD.PI.1.10.Em
          Write very short literary texts (e.g., story) and informational texts (e.g., a description of an insect) using familiar vocabulary collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint construction of texts), with peers, and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PI.1.10.Ex
          Write short literary texts (e.g., a story) and informational texts (e.g., an informative text on the life cycle of an insect) collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint construction of texts), with peers, and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PI.1.10.Br
          Write longer literary texts (e.g., a story) and informational texts (e.g., an informative text on the life cycle of insects) collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint construction), with peers, and independently.
        • ELD.PI.2.10.Em (1)
          Write very short literary texts (e.g., story) and informational texts (e.g., a description of a volcano) using familiar vocabulary collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint construction of texts), with peers, and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PI.2.10.Ex (1)
          Write short literary texts (e.g., a story) and informational texts (e.g., an explanatory text explaining how a volcano erupts) collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint construction of texts), with peers, and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PI.2.10.Br (1)
          Write longer literary texts (e.g., a story) and informational texts (e.g., an explanatory text explaining how a volcano erupts) collaboratively with an adult (e.g., joint construction), with peers and independently.
        • ELD.PI.3.10a.Em (1)
          Write short literary and informational texts (e.g., a description of a flashlight) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with an adult or with peers) and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PI.3.10b.Em (1)
          Paraphrase texts and recount experiences using key words from notes or graphic organizers.
        • ELD.PI.3.10a.Ex (1)
          Write longer literary and informational texts (e.g., an explanatory text on how flashlights work) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with an adult or with peers) and with increasing independence using appropriate text organization.
        • ELD.PI.3.10b.Ex (1)
          Paraphrase texts and recount experiences using complete sentences and key words from notes or graphic organizers.
        • ELD.PI.3.10a.Br (1)
          Write longer and more detailed literary and informational texts (e.g., an explanatory text on how flashlights work) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with an adult or with peers) and independently using appropriate text organization and growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.3.10b.Br (1)
          Paraphrase texts and recount experiences using increasingly detailed complete sentences and key words from notes or graphic organizers.
        • ELD.PI.4.10a.Em (1)
          Write short literary and informational texts (e.g., a description of a flashlight) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with an adult or with peers) and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PI.4.10b.Em (1)
          Write brief summaries of texts and experiences using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.4.10a.Ex (1)
          Write longer literary and informational texts (e.g., an explanatory text on how flashlights work) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with an adult or with peers) and with increasing independence using appropriate text organization.
        • ELD.PI.4.10b.Ex (1)
          Write increasingly concise summaries of texts and experiences using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.4.10a.Br (1)
          Write longer and more detailed literary and informational texts (e.g., an explanatory text on how flashlights work) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with an adult or with peers) and independently using appropriate text organization and growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.4.10b.Br (1)
          Write clear and coherent summaries of texts and experiences using complete and concise sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.5.10a.Em (1)
          Write short literary and informational texts (e.g., a description of a camel) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with an adult or with peers) and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PI.5.10b.Em (1)
          Write brief summaries of texts and experiences using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.5.10a.Ex (1)
          Write longer literary and informational texts (e.g., an informative report on different kinds of camels) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with an adult or with peers) and with increasing independence by using appropriate text organization.
        • ELD.PI.5.10b.Ex (1)
          Write increasingly concise summaries of texts and experiences using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.5.10a.Br (1)
          Write longer and more detailed literary and informational texts (e.g., an explanation of how camels survive without water for a long time) collaboratively (e.g., joint construction of texts with an adult or with peers) and independently by using appropriate text organization and growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.5.10b.Br (1)
          Write clear and coherent summaries of texts and experiences using complete and concise sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.6.10a.Em
          Write short literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument for protecting the rain forests) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently.
        • ELD.PI.6.10b.Em
          Write brief summaries of texts and experiences using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.6.10a.Ex
          Write longer literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument for protecting the rain forests) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently using appropriate text organization.
        • ELD.PI.6.10b.Ex
          Write increasingly concise summaries of texts and experiences using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.6.10a.Br
          Write longer and more detailed literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument for protecting the rain forests) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently using appropriate text organization and growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.6.10b.Br
          Write clear and coherent summaries of texts and experiences using complete and concise sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.7.10a.Em
          Write short literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument for wearing school uniforms) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently.
        • ELD.PI.7.10b.Em
          Write brief summaries of texts and experiences using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.7.10a.Ex
          Write longer literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument for wearing school uniforms) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently using appropriate text organization.
        • ELD.PI.7.10b.Ex
          Write increasingly concise summaries of texts and experiences using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.7.10a.Br
          Write longer and more detailed literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument for wearing school uniforms) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently using appropriate text organization and growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.7.10b.Br
          Write clear and coherent summaries of texts and experiences using complete and concise sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.8.10a.Em
          Write short literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument about whether the government should fund research using stem cells) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently.
        • ELD.PI.8.10b.Em
          Write brief summaries of texts and experiences using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.8.10a.Ex
          Write longer literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument about whether the government should fund research using stem cells) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently using appropriate text organization.
        • ELD.PI.8.10b.Ex
          Write increasingly concise summaries of texts and experiences using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.8.10a.Br
          Write longer and more detailed literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument about whether the government should fund research using stem cells) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently using appropriate text organization and growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.8.10b.Br
          Write clear and coherent summaries of texts and experiences using complete and concise sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.9-10.10a.Em
          Write short literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument about water rights) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.10b.Em (1)
          Write brief summaries of texts and experiences by using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.9-10.10a.Ex
          Write longer literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument about water rights) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently by using appropriate text organization and growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.10b.Ex (1)
          Write increasingly concise summaries of texts and experiences by using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.9-10.10a.Br
          Write longer and more detailed literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument about water rights) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently using appropriate text organization and register.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.10b.Br (1)
          Write clear and coherent summaries of texts and experiences by using complete and concise sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.11-12.10a.Em
          Write short literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument about free speech) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.10b.Em
          Write brief summaries of texts and experiences by using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.11-12.10a.Ex
          Write longer literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument about free speech) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently by using appropriate text organization and growing understanding of register.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.10b.Ex
          Write increasingly concise summaries of texts and experiences by using complete sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
        • ELD.PI.11-12.10a.Br
          Write longer and more detailed literary and informational texts (e.g., an argument about free speech) collaboratively (e.g., with peers) and independently by using appropriate text organization and register.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.10b.Br
          Write clear and coherent summaries of texts and experiences by using complete and concise sentences and key words (e.g., from notes or graphic organizers).
      • Supporting own opinions and evaluating others' opinions in speaking and writing (18)
        • ELD.PI.K.11.Em (2)
          Offer opinions and provide good reasons (e.g., My favorite book is X because X.) referring to the text or to relevant background knowledge.
        • ELD.PI.K.11.Ex (2)
          Offer opinions and provide good reasons and some textual evidence or relevant background knowledge (e.g., paraphrased examples from text or knowledge of content).
        • ELD.PI.K.11.Br (2)
          Offer opinions and provide good reasons with detailed textual evidence or relevant background knowledge (e.g., specific examples from text or knowledge of content).
        • ELD.PI.1.11.Em (1)
          Offer opinions and provide good reasons (e.g., My favorite book is X because X) referring to the text or to relevant background knowledge.
        • ELD.PI.1.11.Ex (1)
          Offer opinions and provide good reasons and some textual evidence or relevant background knowledge (e.g., paraphrased examples from text or knowledge of content).
        • ELD.PI.1.11.Br (1)
          Offer opinions and provide good reasons with detailed textual evidence or relevant background knowledge (e.g., specific examples from text or knowledge of content).
        • ELD.PI.2.11.Em (1)
          Support opinions by providing good reasons and some textual evidence or relevant background knowledge (e.g., referring to textual evidence or knowledge of content).
        • ELD.PI.2.11.Ex (1)
          Support opinions by providing good reasons and increasingly detailed textual evidence (e.g., providing examples from the text) or relevant background knowledge about the content.
        • ELD.PI.2.11.Br (1)
          Support opinions or persuade others by providing good reasons and detailed textual evidence (e.g., specific events or graphics from text) or relevant background knowledge about the content.
        • ELD.PI.3.11.Em
          Support opinions by providing good reasons and some textual evidence or relevant background knowledge (e.g., referring to textual evidence or knowledge of content).
        • ELD.PI.3.11.Ex
          Support opinions by providing good reasons and increasingly detailed textual evidence (e.g., providing examples from the text) or relevant background knowledge about the content.
        • ELD.PI.3.11.Br
          Support opinions or persuade others by providing good reasons and detailed textual evidence (e.g., specific events or graphics from text) or relevant background knowledge about the content.
        • ELD.PI.4.11a.Em
          Support opinions by expressing appropriate/accurate reasons using textual evidence (e.g., referring to text) or relevant background knowledge about content, with substantial support.
        • ELD.PI.4.11b.Em
          Express ideas and opinions or temper statements using basic modal expressions (e.g., can, will, maybe).
        • ELD.PI.4.11a.Ex
          Support opinions or persuade others by expressing appropriate/accurate reasons using some textual evidence (e.g., paraphrasing facts) or relevant background knowledge about content, with moderate support.
        • ELD.PI.4.11b.Ex
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with familiar modal expressions (e.g., maybe/probably, can/must).
        • ELD.PI.4.11a.Br
          Support opinions or persuade others by expressing appropriate/accurate reasons using detailed textual evidence (e.g., quotations or specific events from text) or relevant background knowledge about content, with light support.
        • ELD.PI.4.11b.Br
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., probably/certainly, should/would) and phrasing (e.g., In my opinion…).
        • ELD.PI.5.11a.Em (1)
          Support opinions by expressing appropriate/accurate reasons using textual evidence (e.g., referring to text) or relevant background knowledge about content, with substantial support.
        • ELD.PI.5.11b.Em (1)
          Express ideas and opinions or temper statements using basic modal expressions (e.g., can, has to, maybe).
        • ELD.PI.5.11a.Ex (1)
          Support opinions or persuade others by expressing appropriate/accurate reasons using some textual evidence (e.g., paraphrasing facts from a text) or relevant background knowledge about content, with moderate support.
        • ELD.PI.5.11b.Ex (1)
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with familiar modal expressions (e.g., maybe/probably, can/must).
        • ELD.PI.5.11a.Br (1)
          Support opinions or persuade others by expressing appropriate/accurate reasons using detailed textual evidence (e.g., quoting the text directly or specific events from text) or relevant background knowledge about content, with mild support.
        • ELD.PI.5.11b.Br (1)
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., probably/certainly, should/would) and phrasing (e.g., In my opinion…).
      • Justifying own arguments and evaluating others' arguments in writing
        • ELD.PI.6.11a.Em
          Justify opinions by providing some textual evidence (e.g., quoting from the text) or relevant background knowledge, with substantial support.
        • ELD.PI.6.11b.Em
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with some basic modal expressions (e.g., can, has to).
        • ELD.PI.6.11a.Ex
          Justify opinions or persuade others by providing relevant textual evidence (e.g., quoting from the text or referring to what the text says) or relevant background knowledge, with moderate support.
        • ELD.PI.6.11b.Ex
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with a variety of familiar modal expressions (e.g., maybe/probably, can/could, must).
        • ELD.PI.6.11a.Br
          Justify opinions or persuade others by providing detailed and relevant textual evidence (e.g., quoting from the text directly or referring to specific textual evidence) or relevant background knowledge, with light support.
        • ELD.PI.6.11b.Br
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., probably/certainly/definitely, should/would, might) and phrasing (e.g., In my opinion…)
        • ELD.PI.7.11a.Em
          Justify opinions by providing some textual evidence or relevant background knowledge, with substantial support.
        • ELD.PI.7.11b.Em
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with familiar modal expressions (e.g., can, may).
        • ELD.PI.7.11a.Ex
          Justify opinions or persuade others by providing relevant textual evidence or relevant background knowledge, with moderate support.
        • ELD.PI.7.11b.Ex
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with a variety of familiar modal expressions (e.g., possibly/likely, could/would/should).
        • ELD.PI.7.11a.Br
          Justify opinions or persuade others by providing detailed and relevant textual evidence or relevant background knowledge, with light support.
        • ELD.PI.7.11b.Br
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., possibly/potentially/absolutely, should/might).
        • ELD.PI.8.11a.Em
          Justify opinions by providing some textual evidence or relevant background knowledge, with substantial support.
        • ELD.PI.8.11b.Em
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with familiar modal expressions (e.g., can, may).
        • ELD.PI.8.11a.Ex
          Justify opinions or persuade others by providing relevant textual evidence or relevant background knowledge, with moderate support.
        • ELD.PI.8.11b.Ex
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with a variety of familiar modal expressions (e.g., possibly/likely, could/would).
        • ELD.PI.8.11a.Br
          Justify opinions or persuade others by providing detailed and relevant textual evidence or relevant background knowledge, with light support.
        • ELD.PI.8.11b.Br
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., potentially/certainly/absolutely, should/might).
        • ELD.PI.9-10.11a.Em
          Justify opinions by articulating some relevant textual evidence or background knowledge, with visual support.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.11b.Em
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with familiar modal expressions (e.g., can, may).
        • ELD.PI.9-10.11a.Ex
          Justify opinions and positions or persuade others by making connections between ideas and articulating relevant textual evidence or background knowledge.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.11b.Ex
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with a variety of familiar modal expressions (e.g., possibly/likely, could/would).
        • ELD.PI.9-10.11a.Br
          Justify opinions or persuade others by making connections and distinctions between ideas and texts and articulating sufficient, detailed, and relevant textual evidence or background knowledge, using appropriate register.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.11b.Br
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., possibly/potentially/certainly/absolutely, should/might).
        • ELD.PI.11-12.11a.Em
          Justify opinions by articulating some textual evidence or background knowledge with visual support.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.11b.Em
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with familiar modal expressions (e.g., can, may).
        • ELD.PI.11-12.11a.Ex
          Justify opinions and positions or persuade others by making connections between ideas and articulating relevant textual evidence or background knowledge.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.11b.Ex
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with a variety of familiar modal expressions (e.g., possibly/likely, could/would).
        • ELD.PI.11-12.11a.Br
          Justify opinions or persuade others by making connections and distinctions between ideas and texts and articulating sufficient, detailed, and relevant textual evidence or background knowledge by using appropriate register.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.11b.Br
          Express attitude and opinions or temper statements with nuanced modal expressions (e.g., possibly/potentially/certainly/absolutely, should/might).
      • Selecting and applying varied and precise vocabulary and language structures to effectively convey ideas (13)
        • ELD.PI.K.12a.Em (2)
          Retell texts and recount experiences using a select set of key words.
        • ELD.PI.K.12b.Em (2)
          Use a select number of general academic and domain-specific words to add detail (e.g., adding the word spicy to describe a favorite food, using the word larva when explaining insect metamorphosis) while speaking and composing.
        • ELD.PI.K.12a.Ex (2)
          Retell texts and recount experiences using complete sentences and key words.
        • ELD.PI.K.12b.Ex (2)
          Use a growing number of general academic and domain-specific words in order to add detail or to create shades of meaning (e.g., using the word scurry versus run) while speaking and composing.
        • ELD.PI.K.12a.Br (2)
          Retell texts and recount experiences using increasingly detailed complete sentences and key words.
        • ELD.PI.K.12b.Br (2)
          Use a wide variety of general academic and domain-specific words, synonyms, antonyms, and non-literal language to create an effect (e.g., using the word suddenly to signal a change) or to create shades of meaning (e.g., The cat's fur was as white as snow) while speaking and composing.
        • ELD.PI.1.12a.Em
          Retell texts and recount experiences, using key words.
        • ELD.PI.1.12b.Em
          Use a select number of general academic and domain-specific words to add detail (e.g., adding the word scrumptious to describe a favorite food, using the word thorax to refer to insect anatomy) while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.1.12a.Ex
          Retell texts and recount experiences, using complete sentences and key words.
        • ELD.PI.1.12b.Ex
          Use a growing number of general academic and domain-specific words in order to add detail, create an effect (e.g., using the word suddenly to signal a change), or create shades of meaning (e.g., prance versus walk) while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.1.12a.Br
          Retell texts and recount experiences, using increasingly detailed complete sentences and key words.
        • ELD.PI.1.12b.Br
          Use a wide variety of general academic and domain-specific words, synonyms, antonyms, and non-literal language (e.g., The dog was as big as a house) to create an effect, precision, and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.2.12a.Em
          Retell texts and recount experiences by using key words.
        • ELD.PI.2.12b.Em
          Use a select number of general academic and domain-specific words to add detail (e.g., adding the word generous to describe a character, using the word lava to explain volcanic eruptions) while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.2.12a.Ex
          Retell texts and recount experiences using complete sentences and key words.
        • ELD.PI.2.12b.Ex
          Use a growing number of general academic and domain-specific words in order to add detail, create an effect (e.g., using the word suddenly to signal a change), or create shades of meaning (e.g., scurry versus dash) while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.2.12a.Br
          Retell texts and recount experiences using increasingly detailed complete sentences and key words.
        • ELD.PI.2.12b.Br
          Use a wide variety of general academic and domain-specific words, synonyms, antonyms, and non-literal language (e.g., He was as quick as a cricket) to create an effect, precision, and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.3.12.Em
          Use a select number of general academic and domain-specific words to add detail (e.g., adding the word dangerous to describe a place, using the word habitat when describing animal behavior) while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.3.12.Ex
          Use a growing number of general academic and domain-specific words in order to add detail, create an effect (e.g., using the word suddenly to signal a change), or create shades of meaning (e.g., scurry versus dash) while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.3.12.Br
          Use a wide variety of general academic and domain-specific words, synonyms, antonyms, and non-literal language to create an effect, precision, and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.4.12a.Em
          Use a select number of general academic and domain-specific words to create precision while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.4.12b.Em
          Select a few frequently used affixes for accuracy and precision (e.g., She walks, I'm unhappy).
        • ELD.PI.4.12a.Ex
          Use a growing number of general academic and domain-specific words, synonyms, and antonyms to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.4.12b.Ex
          Select a growing number of frequently used affixes for accuracy and precision (e.g., She walked. He likes…, I'm unhappy).
        • ELD.PI.4.12a.Br
          Use a wide variety of general academic and domain-specific words, synonyms, antonyms, and figurative language to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.4.12b.Br
          Select a variety of appropriate affixes for accuracy and precision (e.g., She's walking. I'm uncomfortable. They left reluctantly).
        • ELD.PI.5.12a.Em
          Use a select number of general academic and domain-specific words to create precision while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.5.12b.Em
          Select a few frequently used affixes for accuracy and precision (e.g., She walks, I'm unhappy).
        • ELD.PI.5.12a.Ex
          Use a growing number of general academic and domain-specific words, synonyms, and antonyms to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.5.12b.Ex
          Select a growing number of frequently used affixes for accuracy and precision (e.g., She walked. He likes…, I'm unhappy).
        • ELD.PI.5.12a.Br
          Use a wide variety of general academic and domain-specific words, synonyms, antonyms, and figurative language to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.5.12b.Br
          Select a variety of appropriate affixes for accuracy and precision (e.g., She's walking. I'm uncomfortable. They left reluctantly).
        • ELD.PI.6.12a.Em
          Use a select number of general academic words (e.g., author, chart) and domain-specific words (e.g., scene, cell, fraction) to create some precision while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.6.12b.Em
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in basic ways (e.g., She likes X).
        • ELD.PI.6.12a.Ex
          Use a growing set of academic words (e.g., author, chart, global, affect), domain-specific words (e.g., scene, setting, plot, point of view, fraction, cell membrane, democracy), synonyms, and antonyms to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.6.12b.Ex
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a growing number of ways to manipulate language (e.g., She likes X. That's impossible).
        • ELD.PI.6.12a.Br
          Use an expanded set of general academic words (e.g., affect, evidence, demonstrate, reluctantly), domain-specific words (e.g., scene, setting, plot, point of view, fraction, cell membrane, democracy), synonyms, antonyms, and figurative language to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.6.12b.Br
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a variety of ways to manipulate language (e.g., changing observe → observation, reluctant → reluctantly, produce → production, and so on).
        • ELD.PI.7.12a.Em
          Use a select number of general academic words (e.g., cycle, alternative) and domain-specific words (e.g., scene, chapter, paragraph, cell) to create some precision while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.7.12b.Em
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in basic ways (e.g., She likes X. He walked to school).
        • ELD.PI.7.12a.Ex
          Use a growing set of academic words (e.g., cycle, alternative, indicate, process), domain-specific words (e.g., scene, soliloquy, sonnet, friction, monarchy, fraction), synonyms, and antonyms to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.7.12b.Ex
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a growing number of ways to manipulate language (e.g., She likes walking to school. That's impossible).
        • ELD.PI.7.12a.Br
          Use an expanded set of general academic words (e.g., cycle, alternative, indicate, process, emphasize, illustrate), domain-specific words (e.g., scene, soliloquy, sonnet, friction, monarchy, fraction), synonyms, antonyms, and figurative language to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.7.12b.Br
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a variety of ways to manipulate language (e.g., changing destroy → destruction, probably → probability, reluctant → reluctantly).
        • ELD.PI.8.12a.Em
          Use a select number of general academic words (e.g., specific, contrast) and domain-specific words (e.g., scene, cell, fraction) to create some precision while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.8.12b.Em
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in basic ways (e.g., She likes X. He walked to school).
        • ELD.PI.8.12a.Ex
          Use a growing set of academic words (e.g., specific, contrast, significant, function), domain-specific words (e.g., scene, irony, suspense, analogy, cell membrane, fraction), synonyms, and antonyms to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.8.12b.Ex
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a growing number of ways to manipulate language (e.g., She likes walking to school. That's impossible).
        • ELD.PI.8.12a.Br
          Use an expanded set of general academic words (e.g., specific, contrast, significant, function, adequate, analysis), domain-specific words (e.g., scene, irony, suspense, analogy, cell membrane, fraction), synonyms, antonyms, and figurative language to create precision and shades of meaning while speaking and writing.
        • ELD.PI.8.12b.Br
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a variety of ways to manipulate language (e.g., changing destroy → destruction, probably → probability, reluctant → reluctantly).
        • ELD.PI.9-10.12a.Em
          Use familiar general academic (e.g., temperature, document) and domain-specific (e.g., characterization, photosynthesis, society, quadratic functions) words to create clear spoken and written texts.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.12b.Em
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select basic affixes (e.g., The skull protects the brain).
        • ELD.PI.9-10.12a.Ex (1)
          Use an increasing variety of grade-appropriate general academic (e.g., dominate, environment) and domain-specific (e.g., characterization, photosynthesis, society, quadratic functions) academic words accurately and appropriately when producing increasingly complex written and spoken texts.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.12b.Ex
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a growing number of ways to manipulate language (e.g., diplomatic, stems are branched or unbranched).
        • ELD.PI.9-10.12a.Br
          Use a variety of grade-appropriate general (e.g., anticipate, transaction) and domain-specific (e.g., characterization, photosynthesis, society, quadratic functions) academic words and phrases, including persuasive language, accurately and appropriately when producing complex written and spoken texts.
        • ELD.PI.9-10.12b.Br
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a variety of ways to manipulate language (e.g., changing humiliate to humiliation or incredible to incredibly).
        • ELD.PI.11-12.12a.Em
          Use familiar general academic (e.g., temperature, document) and domain-specific (e.g., cell, the Depression) words to create clear spoken and written texts.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.12b.Em
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select basic affixes (e.g., The news media relies on official sources).
        • ELD.PI.11-12.12a.Ex
          Use an increasing variety of grade-appropriate general academic (e.g., fallacy, dissuade) and domain-specific (e.g., chromosome, federalism) academic words accurately and appropriately when producing increasingly complex written and spoken texts.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.12b.Ex
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a growing number of ways to manipulate language (e.g., The cardiac muscle works continuously.).
        • ELD.PI.11-12.12a.Br
          Use a variety of grade-appropriate general (e.g., alleviate, salutary) and domain-specific (e.g., soliloquy, microorganism) academic words and phrases, including persuasive language, accurately and appropriately when producing complex written and spoken texts.
        • ELD.PI.11-12.12b.Br
          Use knowledge of morphology to appropriately select affixes in a variety of ways to manipulate language (e.g., changing inaugurate to inauguration).
  • Learning About How English Works (14)
    • Structuring Cohesive Texts (2)
      • Understanding text structure (2)
        • ELD.PII.K.1.Em
          Apply understanding of how text types are organized (e.g., how a story is organized by a sequence of events) to comprehending and composing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher, with peers, and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.K.1.Ex
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a story is organized sequentially with predictable stages versus how an informative text is organized by topic and details) to comprehending texts and composing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher, collaboratively with peers, and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.K.1.Br
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized predictably (e.g., a narrative text versus an informative text versus an opinion text) to comprehending texts and composing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher, with peers, and independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.1.Em
          Apply understanding of how text types are organized (e.g., how a story is organized by a sequence of events) to comprehending texts and composing basic texts with substantial support (e.g., using drawings, through joint construction with a peer or teacher) to comprehending texts and writing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher, with peers, and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.1.Ex
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a story is organized sequentially with predictable stages versus how an informative text is organized by topic and details) to comprehending texts and writing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.1.1.Br
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized predictably to express ideas (e.g., how a story is organized versus an informative/explanatory text versus an opinion text) to comprehending texts and writing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.1.Em
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a story is organized sequentially) to comprehending and composing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher, with peers, and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.1.Ex
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a story is organized sequentially with predictable stages versus how an information report is organized by topic and details) to comprehending texts and composing texts with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.2.1.Br
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized predictably to express ideas (e.g., a narrative versus an informative/explanatory text versus an opinion text) to comprehending and writing texts independently.
        • ELD.PII.3.1.Em
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a story is organized sequentially) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.3.1.Ex
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a story is organized sequentially with predictable stages) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.3.1.Br
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a story is organized sequentially with predictable stages versus how opinion/arguments are structured logically, grouping related ideas) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.4.1.Em
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized sequentially) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.4.1.Ex
          Apply increasing understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized sequentially with predictable stages versus how an explanation is organized around ideas) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.4.1.Br
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized sequentially with predictable stages versus how opinions/arguments are structured logically, grouping related ideas) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.5.1.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized sequentially with predictable stages versus how opinions/arguments are organized around ideas) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.5.1.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized sequentially with predictable stages versus how opinions/arguments are structured logically around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.5.1.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a historical account is organized chronologically versus how opinions/arguments are structured logically around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.6.1.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized sequentially with predictable stages versus how arguments are organized around ideas) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.6.1.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a narrative is organized sequentially with predictable stages versus how arguments are structured logically around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.6.1.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how a historical account is organized chronologically versus how arguments are structured logically around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.7.1.Em
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how narratives are organized sequentially) to comprehending texts and to writing brief arguments, informative/explanatory texts and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.7.1.Ex (1)
          Apply understanding of the organizational features of different text types (e.g., how narratives are organized by an event sequence that unfolds naturally versus how arguments are organized around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and to writing increasingly clear and coherent arguments, informative/explanatory texts and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.7.1.Br (1)
          Apply understanding of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how narratives are organized by an event sequence that unfolds naturally versus how arguments are organized around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and to writing clear and cohesive arguments, informative/explanatory texts and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.8.1.Em
          Apply understanding of how different text types are organized to express ideas (e.g., how narratives are organized sequentially) to comprehending texts and to writing brief arguments, informative/explanatory texts and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.8.1.Ex
          Apply understanding of the organizational features of different text types (e.g., how narratives are organized by an event sequence that unfolds naturally versus how arguments are organized around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and to writing increasingly clear and coherent arguments, informative/explanatory texts and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.8.1.Br
          Apply understanding of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how narratives are organized by an event sequence that unfolds naturally versus how arguments are organized around reasons and evidence) to comprehending texts and to writing clear and cohesive arguments, informative/explanatory texts and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.1.Em
          Apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear relationships among claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence) to comprehending texts and to writing brief arguments, informative/explanatory texts and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.1.Ex
          Apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear relationships among claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence) to comprehending texts and to writing increasingly clear and cohesive arguments, informative/explanatory texts and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.1.Br
          Apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear relationships among claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence) to comprehending texts and to writing clear and cohesive arguments, informative/explanatory texts and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.1.Em
          Apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear relationships among claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence) to comprehending texts and to writing brief arguments, informative/explanatory texts, and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.1.Ex
          Apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear relationships among claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence) to comprehending texts and to writing increasingly clear and cohesive arguments, informative/explanatory texts, and narratives.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.1.Br
          Apply analysis of the organizational structure of different text types (e.g., how arguments are organized by establishing clear relationships among claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence) to comprehending texts and to writing clear and cohesive arguments, informative/explanatory texts, and narratives.
      • Understanding cohesion
        • ELD.PII.K.2.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using more everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., one time, then) to comprehending texts and composing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher, with peers, and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.K.2.Ex
          Apply understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a growing number of connecting words or phrases (e.g., next, after a long time) to comprehending texts and composing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher, collaboratively with peers, and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.K.2.Br
          Apply understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., first/second/third, once, at the end) to comprehending texts and composing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher, with peers, and independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.2.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using more everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., one day, after, then) to comprehending texts and writing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher, with peers, and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.2.Ex
          Apply understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a growing number of connecting words or phrases (e.g., a long time ago, suddenly) to comprehending texts and writing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.1.2.Br
          Apply understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., for example, after that, first/second/third) to comprehending texts and writing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.2.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using more everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., today, then) to comprehending and composing texts in shared language activities guided by the teacher, with peers, and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.2.Ex
          Apply understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a growing number of connecting words or phrases (e.g., after a long time, first/next) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.2.2.Br
          Apply understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., for example, after that, suddenly) to comprehending and writing texts independently.
        • ELD.PII.3.2a.Em
          Apply basic understanding of language resources that refer the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.3.2b.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., then, next) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.3.2a.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of language resources that refer the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.3.2b.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., at the beginning/end, first/next) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.3.2a.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of language resources that refer the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns or synonyms refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.3.2b.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using an increasing variety of connecting and transitional words or phrases (e.g., for example, afterward, first/next/last) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.4.2a.Em
          Apply basic understanding of language resources for referring the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.4.2b.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., first, yesterday) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.4.2a.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of language resources for referring the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns or synonyms refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.4.2b.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., since, next, for example) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.4.2a.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of language resources for referring the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns, synonyms, or nominalizations refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.4.2b.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using an increasing variety of academic connecting and transitional words or phrases (e.g., for instance, in addition, at the end) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.5.1a.Em
          Apply basic understanding of language resources for referring the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.5.1b.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a select set of everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., first/next, at the beginning) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.5.1a.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of language resources for referring the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns or synonyms refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.5.1b.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., for example, in the first place, as a result) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.5.1a.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of language resources for referring the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns, synonyms, or nominalizations refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.5.1b.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using an increasing variety of academic connecting and transitional words or phrases (e.g., consequently, specifically, however) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.6.1a.Em
          Apply basic understanding of language resources for referring the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.6.1b.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a select set of everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., first/next, at the beginning) to comprehending texts and writing basic texts.
        • ELD.PII.6.1a.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of language resources for referring the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns or synonyms refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.6.1b.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., for example, in the first place, as a result, on the other hand) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.6.1a.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of language resources for referring the reader back or forward in text (e.g., how pronouns, synonyms, or nominalizations refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.6.1b.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using an increasing variety of academic connecting and transitional words or phrases (e.g., consequently, specifically, however, moreover) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.7.1a.Em
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., how pronouns refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending texts and writing brief texts.
        • ELD.PII.7.1b.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., at the end, next) to comprehending texts and writing brief texts.
        • ELD.PII.7.1a.Ex
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., how pronouns refer back to nouns in text, how using synonyms helps avoid repetition) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.7.1b.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., for example, as a result, on the other hand) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.7.1a.Br
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., how pronouns, synonyms, or nominalizations are used to refer backward in a text) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.7.1b.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using an increasing variety of academic connecting and transitional words or phrases (e.g., for instance, in addition, consequently) to comprehending texts and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.8.1a.Em
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., how pronouns refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending and writing brief texts.
        • ELD.PII.8.1b.Em
          Apply basic understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using everyday connecting words or phrases (e.g., at the end, next) to comprehending and writing brief texts.
        • ELD.PII.8.1a.Ex
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., how pronouns refer back to nouns in text, how using synonyms helps avoid repetition) to comprehending and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.8.1b.Ex
          Apply growing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using a variety of connecting words or phrases (e.g., for example, as a result, on the other hand) to comprehending and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.8.1a.Br
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., how pronouns, synonyms, or nominalizations are used to refer backward in a text) to comprehending texts and writing cohesive texts.
        • ELD.PII.8.1b.Br
          Apply increasing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using an increasing variety of academic connecting and transitional words or phrases (e.g., for instance, in addition, consequently) to comprehending and writing texts with increasing cohesion.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.1a.Em
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., using pronouns to refer back to nouns in text) to comprehending and writing brief texts.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.1b.Em
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for linking ideas, events, or reasons throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/transition words and phrases, such as first, second, third) to comprehending and writing brief texts.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.1a.Ex
          Apply knowledge of a growing number of language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., using nominalizations to refer back to an action or activity described earlier) to comprehending texts and to writing increasingly cohesive texts for specific purposes and audiences.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.1b.Ex
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for linking ideas, events, or reasons throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/transition words and phrases, such as meanwhile, however, on the other hand) to comprehending texts and to writing increasingly cohesive texts for specific purposes and audiences.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.1a.Br
          Apply knowledge of a variety of language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., using nominalization, paraphrasing, or summaries to reference or recap an idea or explanation provided earlier) to comprehending grade-level texts and to writing clear and cohesive grade-level texts for specific purposes and audiences.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.1b.Br
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for linking ideas, events, or reasons throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/transition words and phrases, such as on the contrary, in addition, moreover) to comprehending grade-level texts and to writing cohesive texts for specific purposes and audiences.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.1a.Em
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., using pronouns or synonyms to refer back to characters or concepts introduced earlier) to comprehending and writing brief texts.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.1b.Em
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for linking ideas, events, or reasons throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/transition words and phrases, such as first, second, finally) to comprehending and writing brief texts.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.1a.Ex
          Apply knowledge of a growing number of language resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., using nominalizations to refer back to an action or activity described earlier) to comprehending texts and to writing increasingly cohesive texts for specific purposes and audiences.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.1b.Ex
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for linking ideas, events, or reasons throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/transition words and phrases, such as meanwhile, however, on the other hand) to comprehending texts and to writing increasingly cohesive texts for specific purposes and audiences.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.1a.Br
          Apply knowledge of a variety of resources for referring to make texts more cohesive (e.g., using nominalization, paraphrases, or summaries to reference or recap an idea or explanation provided earlier) to comprehending grade-level texts and to writing clear and cohesive texts for specific purposes and audiences.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.1b.Br
          Apply knowledge of familiar language resources for linking ideas, events, or reasons throughout a text (e.g., using connecting/transition words and phrases, such as on the contrary, in addition, moreover) to comprehending grade-level texts and writing cohesive texts for specific purposes and audiences.
    • Expanding and Enriching Ideas (12)
      • Using verbs and verb phrases (6)
        • ELD.PII.K.3a.Em (1)
          Use frequently used verbs (e.g., go, eat, run) and verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.K.3b.Em (1)
          Use simple verb tenses appropriate for the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple past for recounting an experience) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.K.3a.Ex (1)
          Use a growing number of verbs and verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.K.3b.Ex (1)
          Use a growing number of verb tenses appropriate for the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple past tense for retelling, simple present for a science description) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.K.3a.Br (1)
          Use a wide variety of verbs and verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.K.3b.Br (1)
          Use a wide variety of verb tenses appropriate for the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple present for a science description, simple future to predict) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.3a.Em
          Use frequently used verbs (e.g., go, eat, run) and verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.3b.Em
          Use simple verb tenses appropriate for the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple past for recounting an experience) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.3a.Ex
          Use a growing number of verbs and verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.1.3b.Ex
          Use a growing number of verb tenses appropriate for the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple past tense for retelling, simple present for a science description) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.1.3a.Br
          Use a wide variety of verbs and verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.3b.Br
          Use a wide variety of verb tenses appropriate for the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple present for a science description, simple future to predict) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.3a.Em
          Use frequently used verbs (e.g., walk, run) and verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.3b.Em
          Use simple verb tenses appropriate to the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple past tense for recounting an experience) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.3a.Ex
          Use a growing number of verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.2.3b.Ex
          Use a growing number of verb tenses appropriate to the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple past tense for retelling, simple present for a science description) with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.2.3a.Br
          Use a variety of verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.3b.Br
          Use a wide variety of verb tenses appropriate to the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple present tense for a science description, simple future to predict) independently.
        • ELD.PII.3.3.Em
          Use frequently used verbs, different verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling), and verb tenses appropriate to the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple past for recounting an experience).
        • ELD.PII.3.3.Ex
          Use a growing number of verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and verb tenses appropriate to the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple past for retelling, simple present for a science description).
        • ELD.PII.3.3.Br
          Use a variety of verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and verb tenses appropriate to the text type and discipline to convey time (e.g., simple present for a science description, simple future to predict).
        • ELD.PII.4.3.Em
          Use various verbs/verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and tenses appropriate to the text type and discipline (e.g., simple past for recounting an experience) for familiar topics.
        • ELD.PII.4.3.Ex
          Use various verbs/verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and tenses appropriate to the task, text type, and discipline (e.g., simple past for retelling, timeless present for science explanation) for an increasing variety of familiar and new topics.
        • ELD.PII.4.3.Br
          Use various verbs/verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and tenses appropriate to the task and text type (e.g., timeless present for science explanation, mixture of past and present for historical information report) for a variety of familiar and new topics.
        • ELD.PII.5.3.Em
          Use frequently used verbs (e.g., take, like, eat) and various verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and tenses appropriate to the text type and discipline (e.g., simple past for recounting an experience) on familiar topics.
        • ELD.PII.5.3.Ex
          Use various verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and tenses appropriate to the task, text type, and discipline (e.g., simple past for recounting an experience, timeless present for a science description) on an increasing variety of topics.
        • ELD.PII.5.3.Br
          Use various verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling) and tenses appropriate to the task and text type (e.g., timeless present for science description, mixture of past and present for narrative or history explanation) on a variety of topics.
        • ELD.PII.6.3.Em
          Use a variety of verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling), tenses (e.g., present, past, future, simple, progressive) appropriate to the text type and discipline (e.g., simple past and past progressive for recounting an experience) on familiar topics.
        • ELD.PII.6.3.Ex
          Use various verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling, reporting), tenses (e.g., present, past, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the task, text type, and discipline (e.g., simple present for literary analysis) on an increasing variety of topics.
        • ELD.PII.6.3.Br
          Use various verb types (e.g., doing, saying, being/having, thinking/feeling, reporting), tenses (e.g., present, past, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the task, text type, and discipline (e.g., the present perfect to describe previously made claims or conclusions) on a variety of topics.
        • ELD.PII.7.3.Em
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., present, past, future, simple, progressive) appropriate to the text type and discipline (e.g., simple past and past progressive for recounting an experience) on familiar topics.
        • ELD.PII.7.3.Ex
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., present, past, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the task, text type, and discipline (e.g., simple present for literary analysis) on an increasing variety of topics.
        • ELD.PII.7.3.Br
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., present, past, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the task, text type, and discipline (e.g., the present perfect to describe previously made claims or conclusions) on a variety of topics.
        • ELD.PII.8.3.Em
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive) appropriate to the text type and discipline (e.g., simple past and past progressive for recounting an experience) on familiar topics.
        • ELD.PII.8.3.Ex
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the task, text type, and discipline (e.g., the present perfect to describe previously made claims or conclusions) on an increasing variety of topics.
        • ELD.PII.8.3.Br
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect), voices (active and passive), and moods (e.g., declarative, interrogative, subjunctive) appropriate to the task, text type, and discipline (e.g., the passive voice in simple past to describe the methods of a scientific experiment) on a variety of topics.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.3.Em
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive) appropriate to the text type and discipline to create short texts on familiar academic topics.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.3.Ex
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the text type and discipline to create a variety of texts that explain, describe, and summarize concrete and abstract thoughts and ideas.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.3.Br
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect), and mood (e.g., subjunctive) appropriate to the text type and discipline to create a variety of texts that describe concrete and abstract ideas, explain procedures and sequences, summarize texts and ideas, and present and critique points of view.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.3.Em
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive) appropriate to the text type and discipline to create short texts on familiar academic topics.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.3.Ex
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect) appropriate to the text type and discipline to create a variety of texts that explain, describe, and summarize concrete and abstract thoughts and ideas.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.3.Br
          Use a variety of verbs in different tenses (e.g., past, present, future, simple, progressive, perfect), and mood (e.g., subjunctive) appropriate to the text type and discipline to create a variety of texts that describe concrete and abstract ideas, explain procedures and sequences, summarize texts and ideas, and present and critique points of view.
      • Using nouns and noun phrases (3)
        • ELD.PII.K.4.Em (1)
          Expand noun phrases in simple ways (e.g., adding a familiar adjective to describe a noun) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and so on, in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.K.4.Ex (1)
          Expand noun phrases in a growing number of ways (e.g., adding a newly learned adjective to a noun) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and so on, in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.K.4.Br (1)
          Expand noun phrases in a wide variety of ways (e.g., adding a variety of adjectives to noun phrases) in order to enrich the meaning of phrases/sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and so on, in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.4.Em
          Expand noun phrases in simple ways (e.g., adding a familiar adjective to describe a noun) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like, in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.4.Ex
          Expand noun phrases in a growing number of ways (e.g., adding a newly learned adjective to a noun) to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like, in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.1.4.Br
          Expand noun phrases in a wide variety of ways (e.g., adding a variety of adjectives to noun phrases) in order to enrich the meaning of phrases/sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like, in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.4.Em
          Expand noun phrases in simple ways (e.g., adding a familiar adjective to describe a noun) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and to add details about ideas, people, things, and the like, in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.4.Ex
          Expand noun phrases in a growing number of ways (e.g., adding a newly learned adjective to a noun) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and to add details about ideas, people, things, and the like, with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.2.4.Br
          Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways (e.g., adding comparative/superlative adjectives to nouns) in order to enrich the meaning of phrases/sentences and to add details about ideas, people, things, and the like, independently.
        • ELD.PII.3.4.Em
          Expand noun phrases in simple ways (e.g., adding an adjective to a noun) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like.
        • ELD.PII.3.4.Ex
          Expand noun phrases in a growing number of ways (e.g., adding comparative/superlative adjectives to nouns) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like.
        • ELD.PII.3.4.Br
          Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways (e.g., adding comparative/superlative adjectives to noun phrases, simple clause embedding) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like.
        • ELD.PII.4.4.Em
          Expand noun phrases in simple ways (e.g., adding an adjective) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and so on.
        • ELD.PII.4.4.Ex
          Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways (e.g., adding adjectives to noun phrases or simple clause embedding) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and so on.
        • ELD.PII.4.4.Br
          Expand noun phrases in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., adding general academic adjectives and adverbs to noun phrases or more complex clause embedding) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and so on.
        • ELD.PII.5.4.Em
          Expand noun phrases in simple ways (e.g., adding an adjective to a noun) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like.
        • ELD.PII.5.4.Ex
          Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways (e.g., adding comparative/superlative adjectives to noun phrases or simple clause embedding) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like.
        • ELD.PII.5.4.Br
          Expand noun phrases in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., adding comparative/superlative and general academic adjectives to noun phrases or more complex clause embedding) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like.
        • ELD.PII.6.4.Em
          Expand noun phrases in simple ways (e.g., adding a sensory adjective to a noun) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like.
        • ELD.PII.6.4.Ex
          Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways (e.g., adding comparative/superlative adjectives to noun phrases or simple clause embedding) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like.
        • ELD.PII.6.4.Br
          Expand noun phrases in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., adding comparative/superlative and general academic adjectives to noun phrases or more complex clause embedding) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and the like.
        • ELD.PII.7.4.Em
          Expand noun phrases in basic ways (e.g., adding a sensory adjective to a noun) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, and things.
        • ELD.PII.7.4.Ex
          Expand noun phrases in a growing number of ways (e.g., adding adjectives to nouns or simple clause embedding) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, and things.
        • ELD.PII.7.4.Br
          Expand noun phrases in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., more complex clause embedding) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, and things.
        • ELD.PII.8.4.Em
          Expand noun phrases in basic ways (e.g., adding a sensory adjective to a noun) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and so on.
        • ELD.PII.8.4.Ex
          Expand noun phrases in a growing number of ways (e.g., adding prepositional or adjective phrases) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and so on.
        • ELD.PII.8.4.Br
          Expand noun phrases in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., embedding relative or complement clauses) in order to enrich the meaning of sentences and add details about ideas, people, things, and so on.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.4.Em
          Expand noun phrases to create increasingly detailed sentences (e.g., adding adjectives for precision) about personal and familiar academic topics.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.4.Ex
          Expand noun phrases in a growing number of ways (e.g., adding adjectives to nouns; simple clause embedding) to create detailed sentences that accurately describe, explain, and summarize information and ideas on a variety of personal and academic topics.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.4.Br
          Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways (e.g., more complex clause embedding) to create detailed sentences that accurately describe concrete and abstract ideas, explain procedures and sequences, summarize texts and ideas, and present and critique points of view on a variety of academic topics.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.4.Em
          Expand noun phrases to create increasingly detailed sentences (e.g., adding adjectives for precision) about personal and familiar academic topics.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.4.Ex
          Expand noun phrases in a growing number of ways (e.g., adding adjectives to nouns, simple clause embedding) to create detailed sentences that accurately describe, explain, and summarize information and ideas on a variety of personal and academic topics.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.4.Br
          Expand noun phrases in a variety of ways (e.g., complex clause embedding) to create detailed sentences that accurately describe concrete and abstract ideas, explain procedures and sequences, summarize texts and ideas, and present and critique points of view on a variety of academic topics.
      • Modifying to add details (3)
        • ELD.PII.K.5.Em (1)
          Expand sentences with frequently used prepositional phrases (such as in the house, on the boat) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar activity or process in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.K.5.Ex (1)
          Expand sentences with prepositional phrases to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar or new activity or process in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.K.5.Br (1)
          Expand simple and compound sentences with prepositional phrases to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.5.Em
          Expand sentences with frequently used prepositional phrases (such as in the house, on the boat) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar activity or process in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.5.Ex
          Expand sentences with prepositional phrases to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar or new activity or process in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.1.5.Br
          Expand simple and compound sentences with prepositional phrases to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.5.Em
          Expand sentences with frequently used adverbials (e.g., prepositional phrases, such as at school, with my friend) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar activity or process in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.5.Ex
          Expand sentences with a growing number of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar or new activity or process with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.2.5.Br
          Expand sentences with a variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) independently.
        • ELD.PII.3.5.Em
          Expand sentences with adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and the like) about a familiar activity or process (e.g., They walked to the soccer field).
        • ELD.PII.3.5.Ex
          Expand sentences with adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and the like) about a familiar or new activity or process (e.g., They worked quietly; they ran across the soccer field).
        • ELD.PII.3.5.Br
          Expand sentences with adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and the like) about a range of familiar and new activities or processes (e.g., They worked quietly all night in their room).
        • ELD.PII.4.5.Em
          Expand sentences with familiar adverbials (e.g., basic prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and so on) about a familiar activity or process (e.g., They walked to the soccer field).
        • ELD.PII.4.5.Ex
          Expand sentences with a growing variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and so on) about a familiar or new activity or process (e.g., They worked quietly. They ran across the soccer field).
        • ELD.PII.4.5.Br
          Expand sentences with a variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and so on) about a variety of familiar and new activities and processes (e.g., They worked quietly all night in their room).
        • ELD.PII.5.5.Em
          Expand and enrich sentences with adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and the like) about a familiar activity or process.
        • ELD.PII.5.5.Ex
          Expand and enrich sentences with adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and the like) about a familiar or new activity or process.
        • ELD.PII.5.5.Br
          Expand and enrich sentences with adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause, and the like) about a variety of familiar and new activities and processes.
        • ELD.PII.6.5.Em
          Expand sentences with simple adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar activity or process.
        • ELD.PII.6.5.Ex
          Expand sentences with an increasing variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar or new activity or process.
        • ELD.PII.6.5.Br
          Expand sentences with a variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases and clauses, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a variety of familiar and new activities and processes.
        • ELD.PII.7.5.Em
          Expand sentences with simple adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar activity or process.
        • ELD.PII.7.5.Ex
          Expand sentences with adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar or new activity or process.
        • ELD.PII.7.5.Br
          Expand sentences with a variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases and clauses, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a variety of familiar and new activities and processes.
        • ELD.PII.8.5.Em
          Expand sentences with simple adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar activity or process.
        • ELD.PII.8.5.Ex
          Expand sentences with adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a familiar or new activity or process.
        • ELD.PII.8.5.Br
          Expand sentences with increasingly complex adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases and clauses, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a variety of familiar and new activities and processes.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.5.Em
          Expand sentences with simple adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about familiar activities or processes.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.5.Ex
          Expand sentences with a growing variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about familiar or new activities or processes.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.5.Br
          Expand sentences with a variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases and clauses, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a variety of familiar and new activities and processes.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.5.Em
          Expand sentences with simple adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about familiar activities or processes.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.5.Ex
          Expand sentences with a growing variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about familiar or new activities or processes.
        • ELD.PII.11-12.5.Br
          Expand sentences with a variety of adverbials (e.g., adverbs, adverb phrases and clauses, prepositional phrases) to provide details (e.g., time, manner, place, cause) about a variety of familiar and new activities and processes.
    • Connecting and Condensing Ideas
      • Connecting ideas
        • ELD.PII.K.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways to make connections between and join ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.K.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in an increasing variety of ways to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to express cause/effect (e.g., She jumped because the dog barked) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.K.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways (e.g., rearranging complete simple sentences to form compound sentences) to make connections between and join ideas (e.g., The boy was hungry. The boy ate a sandwich. The boy was hungry so he ate a sandwich) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways to make connections between and to join ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in an increasing variety of ways to make connections between and to join ideas, for example, to express cause/effect (e.g., She jumped because the dog barked), in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.1.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways (e.g., rearranging complete, simple-to-form compound sentences) to make connections between and to join ideas (e.g., The boy was hungry. The boy ate a sandwich. → The boy was hungry so he ate a sandwich) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways to make connections between and to join ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so) in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in an increasing variety of ways to make connections between and to join ideas, for example, to express cause/effect (e.g., She jumped because the dog barked) with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.2.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways (e.g., rearranging complete, simple-to-form compound sentences) to make connections between and to join ideas (e.g., The boy was hungry. The boy ate a sandwich. → The boy was hungry so he ate a sandwich) independently.
        • ELD.PII.3.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways to make connections between and join ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so).
        • ELD.PII.3.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., creating compound and complex sentences) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to express cause/effect (e.g., The deer ran because the mountain lion came) or to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well).
        • ELD.PII.3.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways (e.g., creating compound and complex sentences) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to express cause/effect (e.g., The deer ran because the mountain lion approached them), to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well), or to link two ideas that happen at the same time (e.g., The cubs played while their mother hunted).
        • ELD.PII.4.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways to make connections between and join ideas in sentences (e.g., creating compound sentences using coordinate conjunctions, such as and, but, so).
        • ELD.PII.4.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., creating complex sentences using familiar subordinate conjunctions) to make connections between and join ideas in sentences, for example, to express cause/effect (e.g., The deer ran because the mountain lion came) or to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well).
        • ELD.PII.4.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways (e.g., creating complex sentences using a variety of subordinate conjunctions) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to express cause/effect (e.g., Since the lion was at the waterhole, the deer ran away), to make a concession, or to link two ideas that happen at the same time (e.g., The cubs played while their mother hunted).
        • ELD.PII.5.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways to make connections between and join ideas (e.g., You must X because X) or to provide evidence to support ideas or opinions (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so).
        • ELD.PII.5.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., creating compound and complex sentences) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to express cause/effect (e.g., The deer ran because the mountain lion came), to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well), or to provide reasons to support ideas (e.g., X is an extremely good book because ___).
        • ELD.PII.5.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways (e.g., creating compound and complex sentences) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to express cause/effect (e.g., The deer ran because the mountain lion approached them), to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well), to link two ideas that happen at the same time (e.g., The cubs played while their mother hunted), or to provide reasons to support ideas (e.g., The author persuades the reader by ___).
        • ELD.PII.6.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways to make connections between and join ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so).
        • ELD.PII.6.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., creating compound and complex sentences) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to express a reason (e.g., He stayed at home on Sunday to study for Monday's exam) or to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well).
        • ELD.PII.6.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways (e.g., creating compound and complex sentences) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to express a reason (e.g., He stayed at home on Sunday because he had an exam on Monday), to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well), or to link two ideas that happen at the same time (e.g., The students worked in groups while their teacher walked around the room).
        • ELD.PII.7.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways to make connections between and join ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so; creating complex sentences using because).
        • ELD.PII.7.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., creating compound and complex sentences) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to express a reason (e.g., He stayed at home on Sunday in order to study for Monday's exam) or to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well).
        • ELD.PII.7.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways (e.g., creating compound, complex, and compound–complex sentences) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to show the relationship between multiple events or ideas (e.g., After eating lunch, the students worked in groups while their teacher walked around the room) or to evaluate an argument (e.g., The author claims X, although there is a lack of evidence to support this claim).
        • ELD.PII.8.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways to make connections between and join ideas (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so; creating complex sentences using because).
        • ELD.PII.8.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., creating compound and complex sentences) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to express a reason (e.g., He stayed at home on Sunday to study for Monday's exam) or to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well).
        • ELD.PII.8.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a wide variety of ways (e.g., creating compound and complex sentences, and compound-complex sentences) to make connections between and join ideas, for example, to show the relationship between multiple events or ideas (e.g., After eating lunch, the students worked in groups while their teacher walked around the room) or to evaluate an argument (e.g., The author claims X, although there is a lack of evidence to support this claim).
        • ELD.PII.9-10.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so; creating complex sentences using because) to make connections between and to join ideas (e.g., I want to read this book because it describes the solar system).
        • ELD.PII.9-10.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in a growing number of ways to create compound and complex sentences that make connections between and link concrete and abstract ideas, for example, to express a reason (e.g., He stayed at home on Sunday in order to study for Monday's exam) or to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well).
        • ELD.PII.9-10.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a variety of ways to create compound and complex sentences that make connections between and link concrete and abstract ideas, for example, to make a concession (e.g., While both characters strive for success, they each take different approaches through which to reach their goals.), or to establish cause (e.g., Women's lives were changed forever after World War II as a result of joining the workforce).
        • ELD.PII.11-12.6.Em
          Combine clauses in a few basic ways (e.g., creating compound sentences using and, but, so; creating complex sentences using because) to make connections between and join ideas (e.g., I want to read this book because it tells the history of Pi).
        • ELD.PII.11-12.6.Ex
          Combine clauses in a growing number of ways to create compound and complex sentences that make connections between and link concrete and abstract ideas, for example, to express a reason (e.g., He stayed at home on Sunday in order to study for Monday's exam) or to make a concession (e.g., She studied all night even though she wasn't feeling well).
        • ELD.PII.11-12.6.Br
          Combine clauses in a variety of ways to create compound and complex sentences that make connections between and link concrete and abstract ideas, for example, to make a concession (e.g., While both characters strive for success, they each take different approaches to reach their goals), or to establish cause (e.g., Women's lives were changed forever after World War II as a result of joining the workforce).
      • Condensing ideas
        • ELD.PII.1.7.Em
          Condense clauses in simple ways (e.g., changing: I like blue. I like red. I like purple → I like blue, red, and purple) to create precise and detailed sentences in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.1.7.Ex
          Condense clauses in a growing number of ways (e.g., through embedded clauses as in, She's a doctor. She saved the animals. → She's the doctor who saved the animals) to create precise and detailed sentences in shared language activities guided by the teacher and with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.1.7.Br
          Condense clauses in a variety of ways (e.g., through embedded clauses and other condensing, for example, through embedded clauses as in She's a doctor. She's amazing. She saved the animals. → She's the amazing doctor who saved the animals) to create precise and detailed sentences in shared language activities guided by the teacher and independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.7.Em
          Condense clauses in simple ways (e.g., changing: It's green. It's red. → It's green and red) to create precise and detailed sentences in shared language activities guided by the teacher and sometimes independently.
        • ELD.PII.2.7.Ex
          Condense clauses in a growing number of ways (e.g., through embedded clauses as in, It's a plant. It's found in the rain forest. → It's a green and red plant that's found in the rain forest) to create precise and detailed sentences with increasing independence.
        • ELD.PII.2.7.Br
          Condense clauses in a variety of ways (e.g., through embedded clauses and other condensing as in, It's a plant. It's green and red. It's found in the tropical rain forest. → It's a green and red plant that's found in the tropical rain forest) to create precise and detailed sentences independently.
        • ELD.PII.3.7.Em
          Condense clauses in simple ways (e.g., changing: It's green. It's red. → It's green and red) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.3.7.Ex
          Condense clauses in a growing number of ways (e.g., through embedded clauses as in, It's a plant. It's found in the rain forest. → It's a green and red plant that's found in the tropical rain forest) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.3.7.Br
          Condense clauses in a variety of ways (e.g., through embedded clauses and other condensing as in, It's a plant. It's green and red. It's found in the tropical rain forest. → It's a green and red plant that's found in the tropical rain forest) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.4.7.Em
          Condense clauses in simple ways (e.g., through simple embedded clauses, as in, The woman is a doctor. She helps children. → The woman is a doctor who helps children) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.4.7.Ex
          Condense clauses in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., through a growing number of embedded clauses and other condensing, as in, The dog ate quickly. The dog choked. → The dog ate so quickly that it choked) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.4.7.Br
          Condense clauses in a variety of ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses and other ways of condensing as in, There was a Gold Rush. It began in the 1850s. It brought a lot of people to California. → The Gold Rush that began in the 1850s brought a lot of people to California) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.5.7.Em
          Condense clauses in simple ways (e.g., through simple embedded clauses as in, The book is on the desk. The book is mine. → The book that is on the desk is mine) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.5.7.Ex
          Condense clauses in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., through a growing number of types of embedded clauses and other condensing as in, The book is mine. The book is about science. The book is on the desk. → The science book that's on the desk is mine) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.5.7.Br
          Condense clauses in a variety of ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses and some nominalizations as in, They were a very strong army. They had a lot of enemies. They crushed their enemies because they were strong. → Their strength helped them crush their numerous enemies) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.6.7.Em
          Condense ideas in simple ways (e.g., by compounding verbs, adding prepositional phrases, or through simple embedded clauses or other ways of condensing as in, This is a story about a girl. The girl changed the world. → This is a story about a girl who changed the world) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.6.7.Ex
          Condense ideas in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses and other ways of condensing, as in, Organic vegetables are food. They're made without chemical fertilizers. They're made without chemical insecticides) → Organic vegetables are foods that are made without chemical fertilizers or insecticides) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.6.7.Br
          Condense ideas in a variety of ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses, ways of condensing, and nominalization as in, They destroyed the rain forest. Lots of animals died → The destruction of the rain forest led to the death of many animals) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.7.7.Em
          Condense ideas in simple ways (e.g., by compounding verbs, adding prepositional phrases, or through simple embedded clauses or other ways of condensing as in, This is a story about a girl. The girl changed the world → This is a story about a girl who changed the world) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.7.7.Ex
          Condense ideas in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses and other ways of condensing, as in, Organic vegetables are food. They're made without chemical fertilizers. They're made without chemical insecticides. → Organic vegetables are foods that are made without chemical fertilizers or insecticides) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.7.7.Br
          Condense ideas in a variety of ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses, ways of condensing, and nominalization as in, They destroyed the rain forest. Lots of animals died → The destruction of the rainforest led to the death of many animals) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.8.7.Em
          Condense ideas in simple ways (e.g., by compounding verbs, adding prepositional phrases, or through simple embedded clauses or other ways of condensing as in, This is a story about a girl. The girl changed the world. → This is a story about a girl who changed the world) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.8.7.Ex
          Condense ideas in an increasing variety of ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses and other ways of condensing, as in, Organic vegetables are food. They're made without chemical fertilizers. They're made without chemical insecticides. → Organic vegetables are foods that are made without chemical fertilizers or insecticides) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.8.7.Br
          Condense ideas in a variety of ways (e.g., through various types of embedded clauses, ways of condensing, and nominalization as in, They destroyed the rain forest. Lots of animals died. → The destruction of the rain forest led to the death of many animals) to create precise and detailed sentences.
        • ELD.PII.9-10.7.Em
          Condense ideas in a few basic ways (e.g., by compounding verb or prepositional phrases) to create precise and detailed simple, compound, and complex sentences (e.g., The students asked survey questions and recorded the responses).
        • ELD.PII.9-10.7.Ex
          Condense ideas in a growing number of ways (e.g., through embedded clauses or by compounding verbs or prepositional phrases) to create more precise and detailed simple, compound, and complex sentences (e.g., Species that could not adapt to the changing climate eventually disappeared).
        • ELD.PII.9-10.7.Br
          Condense ideas in a variety of ways (e.g., through a variety of embedded clauses, or by compounding verbs or prepositional phrases, nominalization) to create precise simple, compound, and complex sentences that condense concrete and abstract ideas (e.g., Another issue that people may be concerned with is the amount of money that it will cost to construct the new building).
        • ELD.PII.11-12.7.Em
          Condense ideas in a few basic ways (e.g., by compounding verb or prepositional phrases) to create precise and detailed simple, compound, and complex sentences (e.g., The students asked survey questions and recorded the responses).
        • ELD.PII.11-12.7.Ex
          Condense ideas in a growing number of ways (e.g., through embedded clauses or by compounding verb or prepositional phrases) to create more precise and detailed simple, compound, and complex sentences (e.g., Species that could not adapt to the changing climate eventually disappeared).
        • ELD.PII.11-12.7.Br
          Condense ideas in a variety of ways (e.g., through a variety of embedded clauses, or by compounding verb or prepositional phrases, nominalization) to create precise simple, compound, and complex sentences that condense concrete and abstract ideas (e.g., The epidemic, which ultimately affected hundreds of thousands of people, did not subside for another year).