Investigative Question

How did various movements for equality build upon one another?

The advances of the black Civil Rights Movement encouraged other groups— including women, Hispanics and Latinos, American Indians, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, LGBT Americans, students, and people with disabilities—to mount their own campaigns for legislative and judicial recognition of their civil equality.

Students can use the question How did various movements for equality build upon one another? to identify commonalities in goals, organizational structures, forms of resistance, and members. Students may note major events in the development of these movements and the consequences. Students may study how Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, and the United Farm Workers movement used nonviolent tactics, educated the general public about the working conditions in agriculture, and worked to improve the lives of farmworkers.

Students should understand the central role of immigrants, including Latino Americans and Filipino Americans, in the farm labor movement. This context also fueled the brown, red, and yellow power movements. The manifestos, declarations, and proclamations of the movements challenged the political, economic, and social discrimination faced by their groups. They also sought to combat the consequences of their “second-class citizenship” by engaging in grassroots mobilization. For example, from 1969 through 1971 American Indian activists occupied Alcatraz Island; while in 1972 and 1973, American Indian Movement (AIM) activists took over the Bureau of Indian Affairs building in Washington, D.C., and held a standoff at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

Meanwhile, Chicano/a activists staged protests around the country, such as the famed Chicano Moratorium in Los Angeles in 1970 that protested the war in Vietnam, and formed a number of organizations to address economic and social inequalities as well as police brutality, and energized cultural pride. Students should learn about the emergence and trajectory of the Chicano Civil Rights Movement by focusing on key groups, events, documents such as the 1968 walkout or “blowout” by approximately 15,000 high school students in East Los Angeles to advocate improved educational opportunities and protest racial discrimination; El Plan de Aztlan, which called for the decolonization of the Mexican American people; El Plan de Santa Barbara, which called for the establishment of Chicano studies; the formation of the Chicano La Raza Unida Party, which sought to challenge mainstream political parties; and Rodolfo “Corky” González’s “I Am Joaquin,” which underscores the struggles for economic and social justice. California activists such as Harvey Milk and Cleve Jones were part of a broader movement that emerged in the aftermath of the Stonewall riots, which brought a new attention to the cause of equal rights for LGBT Americans. Asian Americans: The Movement and the Moment, edited by Steve Louie and Glenn Omatsu; The Latino Reader, edited by Harold Augenbraum and Margarite Olmos; and Native American Testimony, edited by Peter Nabokov, are a few of the readily available collections of personal histories and literature of a period of intense introspection and political activism.

Students also consider the modern women’s movement by addressing the following question: How did various movements for equality build upon one another? Inspired by the Civil Rights Movement, the women’s movement grew stronger in the 1960s. Armed with the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Betty Friedan, author of The Feminine Mystique, helped found the National Organization for Women (NOW) in 1966. Similar to the NAACP, NOW pursued legal equalities for women in the public sphere. Women’s rights activists also changed laws, introducing, for example, Title IX of the 1972 Educational Amendments, which mandated equal funding for women and men in educational institutions.

On the social and cultural front, feminists tackled day-to-day sexism with the mantra “The personal is political.” Many lesbians active in the feminist movement developed lesbian feminism as a political and cultural reaction to the limits of the gay movement and mainstream feminism to address their concerns. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, feminists promoted women’s health collectives, opened shelters for victims of domestic abuse, fought for greater economic independence, and worked to participate in sports equally with men.

Students consider Supreme Court decisions in the late 1960s and early 1970s that recognized women’s rights to birth control (Griswold v. Connecticut, 1965) and abortion (Roe v. Wade, 1973). Students can debate the Equal Rights Amendment and discuss why it failed to get ratified. Students can also read and discuss selections from the writings of leading feminists and their opponents. Over time, students can trace how, by the 1980s and 1990s, women made serious gains in their access to education, politics, and the workforce, though women continue to be denied equal representation at the very highest ranks.

Students also examine the emergence of a movement for LGBT rights, starting in the 1950s with California-based groups like the Mattachine Society and the Daughters of Bilitis. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, these fairly secretive organizations created support networks; secured rights of expression and assembly; and cultivated relationships with clergy, doctors, and legislators to challenge teachings and laws that condemned homosexuality as sinful, sick, and/or criminal. In the 1960s, younger activists, often poorer and sometimes transgender, began to confront police when they raided gay bars and cafes in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and most famously at the Stonewall Inn in New York City in 1969. Organizations such as the Gay Liberation Front and the Gay Activists Alliance called on people in the movement to “come out” as a personal and political act.

Students may consider figures such as Alfred Kinsey, Harry Hay, Jose Sarria, Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon, Frank Kameny, Sylvia Rivera, and Harvey Milk. By the mid-1970s, LGBT mobilization led to successes: the American Psychiatric Association stopped diagnosing homosexuality as a mental illness; 17 states had repealed laws criminalizing gay sexual behavior; 36 cities had passed laws banning antigay discrimination; and gay-identified neighborhoods had emerged in major cities.

 

The advances of the black Civil Rights Movement encouraged other groups — including women, Hispanics and Latinos, American Indians, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, LGBT Americans, students, and people with disabilities — to mount their own campaigns for legislative and judicial recognition of their civil equality.

Students can use the question How did various movements for equality build upon one another? to identify commonalities in goals, organizational structures, forms of resistance, and members. Students may note major events in the development of these movements and the consequences. Students may study how Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, and the United Farm Workers movement used nonviolent tactics, educated the general public about the working conditions in agriculture, and worked to improve the lives of farmworkers.

Students should understand the central role of immigrants, including Latino Americans and Filipino Americans, in the farm labor movement. This context also fueled the brown, red, and yellow power movements. The manifestos, declarations, and proclamations of the movements challenged the political, economic, and social discrimination faced by their groups. They also sought to combat the consequences of their “second-class citizenship” by engaging in grassroots mobilization. For example, from 1969 through 1971 American Indian activists occupied Alcatraz Island; while in 1972 and 1973, American Indian Movement (AIM) activists took over the Bureau of Indian Affairs building in Washington, D.C., and held a standoff at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

Meanwhile, Chicano/a activists staged protests around the country, such as the famed Chicano Moratorium in Los Angeles in 1970 that protested the war in Vietnam, and formed a number of organizations to address economic and social inequalities as well as police brutality, and energized cultural pride. Students should learn about the emergence and trajectory of the Chicano Civil Rights Movement by focusing on key groups, events, documents such as the 1968 walkout or “blowout” by approximately 15,000 high school students in East Los Angeles to advocate improved educational opportunities and protest racial discrimination; El Plan de Aztlan, which called for the decolonization of the Mexican American people; El Plan de Santa Barbara, which called for the establishment of Chicano studies; the formation of the Chicano La Raza Unida Party, which sought to challenge mainstream political parties; and Rodolfo “Corky” González’s “I Am Joaquin,” which underscores the struggles for economic and social justice. California activists such as Harvey Milk and Cleve Jones were part of a broader movement that emerged in the aftermath of the Stonewall riots, which brought a new attention to the cause of equal rights for LGBT Americans. Asian Americans: The Movement and the Moment, edited by Steve Louie and Glenn Omatsu; The Latino Reader, edited by Harold Augenbraum and Margarite Olmos; and Native American Testimony, edited by Peter Nabokov, are a few of the readily available collections of personal histories and literature of a period of intense introspection and political activism.

Students also consider the modern women’s movement by addressing the following question: How did various movements for equality build upon one another? Inspired by the Civil Rights Movement, the women’s movement grew stronger in the 1960s. Armed with the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Betty Friedan, author of The Feminine Mystique, helped found the National Organization for Women (NOW) in 1966. Similar to the NAACP, NOW pursued legal equalities for women in the public sphere. Women’s rights activists also changed laws, introducing, for example, Title IX of the 1972 Educational Amendments, which mandated equal funding for women and men in educational institutions.

On the social and cultural front, feminists tackled day-to-day sexism with the mantra “The personal is political.” Many lesbians active in the feminist movement developed lesbian feminism as a political and cultural reaction to the limits of the gay movement and mainstream feminism to address their concerns. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, feminists promoted women’s health collectives, opened shelters for victims of domestic abuse, fought for greater economic independence, and worked to participate in sports equally with men.

Students consider Supreme Court decisions in the late 1960s and early 1970s that recognized women’s rights to birth control (Griswold v. Connecticut, 1965) and abortion (Roe v. Wade, 1973). Students can debate the Equal Rights Amendment and discuss why it failed to get ratified. Students can also read and discuss selections from the writings of leading feminists and their opponents. Over time, students can trace how, by the 1980s and 1990s, women made serious gains in their access to education, politics, and the workforce, though women continue to be denied equal representation at the very highest ranks.

Students also examine the emergence of a movement for LGBT rights, starting in the 1950s with California-based groups like the Mattachine Society and the Daughters of Bilitis. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, these fairly secretive organizations created support networks; secured rights of expression and assembly; and cultivated relationships with clergy, doctors, and legislators to challenge teachings and laws that condemned homosexuality as sinful, sick, and/or criminal. In the 1960s, younger activists, often poorer and sometimes transgender, began to confront police when they raided gay bars and cafes in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and most famously at the Stonewall Inn in New York City in 1969. Organizations such as the Gay Liberation Front and the Gay Activists Alliance called on people in the movement to “come out” as a personal and political act.

Students may consider figures such as Alfred Kinsey, Harry Hay, Jose Sarria, Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon, Frank Kameny, Sylvia Rivera, and Harvey Milk. By the mid-1970s, LGBT mobilization led to successes: the American Psychiatric Association stopped diagnosing homosexuality as a mental illness; 17 states had repealed laws criminalizing gay sexual behavior; 36 cities had passed laws banning antigay discrimination; and gay-identified neighborhoods had emerged in major cities.

 

Students may consider how a 1958 Supreme Court decision that rejected the U.S. Post Office’s refusal to distribute a gay and lesbian magazine through U.S. mails (One, Inc. v. Olsen) and a 1967 Supreme Court decision that upheld the exclusion and deportation of gay and lesbian immigrants (Boutilier v. Immigration and Naturalization Service) relate to more recent decisions, such as the 1986 decision that upheld state sodomy laws (Bowers v. Hardwick), the 2003 decision overturning such laws (Lawrence v. Texas), 2013 and 2015 decisions on same-sex marriage (United States v. Windsor, Hollingsworth v. Perry, and Obergefell v. Hodges), and the constitutional guarantee of equal protection under the law for transgender individuals, as exemplified through successful claims of employment discrimination including Glenn v. Brumby, Schroer v. Billington, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s decision in Macy v. Holder.

This inquiry set is designed to introduce 11th grade students to the various civil rights movements of the mid-twentieth century. Students will explore the goals, organizational strategies, forms of resistance, members, and achievements of the groups noting both areas of commonalities and differences. The goal is for students to understand how the goals of these groups intersected and converged as they borrowed ideas, collaborated, and gained inspiration from each other. Ultimately students should gain a thorough understanding of the guiding question about how movements for equality build off of each other. 

 

The documents and images in this collection include flyers and articles that highlight movements for equality in California associated with the LGBT community, Native Americans, Women, Asian Americans, Chicanos/Chicanas, and People with Disabilities. 

 

Included here are step-by-step instructions for a problem solving group work activity to guide students through a thoughtful exploration of these sources. This activity will help engage students in the learning and provide them an opportunity to interact with the sources in small groups in a way that further facilitates their processing of content while providing an opportunity to practice their analysis skills.

 

Suggested Active Learning Strategy:

The instructor may wish to organize students in small groups and assign each group an individual document to analyze. Students should examine the assigned document paying particular attention to word choice, associated images, and symbolism. The instructors should prompt students to consider:

 

  • What were the goals of the various movements for equality?

  • What organizational strategies did the various movements for equality use?  

  • What forms of resistance did the various movements for equality use? 

  • Who were the members of these movements for equality?

After approximately 8-10 minutes, groups will swap documents and analyze a new document following the same process. This will continue until students have had the opportunity to analyze all 6 documents. The instructor should rotate around the room checking for understanding.

 

Following the problem solving group activity, ask students to choose a partner from another group.  Working in pairs, students will discuss and process the information they learned by comparing their responses to the above questions. Ask students to refer to their textbooks and lecture notes to answer this question: 

 

  • What were the specific achievements of these various movements of equality? 

After students have had ample time in their pairs for discussion, the instructor should lead the students in a whole-class discussion eliciting student responses to the questions they discussed in their pairs. Remind students to use specific examples to support their points.  As necessary, the instructor should provide more context and guide them into deeper level questions. The instructor should return specifically to the overarching guiding question by asking:

 

  • Where do you notice points of intersection between movements?

  • Where do you see differences between movements?

 

Following the whole class discussion, allow students time to pause for processing by individually reflecting on and recording their responses to the broader question: 

 

  • How did various movements for equality build upon one another?

 

Ask students to consider the continuance of these movements into the present day:

 

  • How do movements for equality today use similar goals, organizational strategies, forms of resistance, members?

  • In what ways are movements of equality today carrying on these fights for equality? 

 

This literacy strategy helps students to interpret a flyer advertising a march and rally against the Vietnam War. The strategy engages students in a multimodal (visual and textual) analysis of the flyer, through which they will practice examining various types of text details.

 

Directions:

 

  1. Provide Context: This literacy lesson invites students to work collaboratively to analyze the meaning of various pieces of the flyer. Because students will improve their multimodal literacy skills by engaging in this struggle, less context may be more here. For example, even if students are not already familiar with the antiwar movement, students should be able to determine enough of its purpose to understand the goals of the poster. Teachers may find they need to provide additional context as necessary.

  2. Interpret and Discuss Text. Use the attached student handout to guide students in a multimodal analysis of some of the components of the poster and how they work together to create a call to action. The handout asks students to consider three components of text: language, image, and text features (placement, bold type, capitalization, etc.).

    1. Briefly explain and/or model each component of the worksheet so students have a sense of what to pay attention to for each part.

    2. Give students time in pairs or small groups partner to talk through some responses to the prompts in each part and take notes as needed. (A pair or small group structure works best here to provide opportunities for verbal processing and collaborative inquiry while engaging as many students as possible in the task.)

    3. Have students share out some of their observations for each section. Keep a class list on the board and add to it as needed. (See handout key for ideas.) As students share observations of what they notice (about image, text features, or language), push the class to think about why the authors of the poster might have made these choices and how they work together with one another (See handout key for ideas.)

After analyzing the three separate components, ask students to consider the last set of questions (What is the message of the poster? How were the organizers attempting to mobilize people to action? What were the various ways that people were encouraged to participate? How did the war in Vietnam affect movements for equality at home?)  You may choose to talk through these ideas as a class or in small groups before asking students to write individually, depending on how the class conversation has gone.

 

Extend the Learning.  To extend student learning ask students to consider how the various  movements for equality both before and after used similar tactics as those used here by the antiwar movement. Many movements considered opposition to the war in Vietnam fundamental to their ideology and forms of resistance.

Student Handout 11.10 March & Rally Against the War in Vietnam

 

Source: MARCH & RALLY Against the war in Vietnam. October 31 Antiwar Coalition, San Francisco, California. California social, protest, and counterculture movement ephemera collection, SOC MOV EPH; Courtesy of the California Historical Society.

 

Transcription: 

Oct. 31

March & Rally Against

the war in Vietnam

Assemble: 11:00 A.M. at Dolores-Mission Park (18th and Dolores.)

March: Down Mission through Downtown to the Civic Center

Rally: 2-4:00 P.M. at the Civic Center

 

Speakers (a partial list)

MESSAGE FROM JANE FONDA - DAN SIEGLE - MANUEL LOPEZ - FATHER EUGENE BOYLE

REP. FROM SOLADED CASE - REP. FROM LOS SIETE CASE - JULIE SIMON - MICHAEL KENNEDY

JOHN TRUDELL - SOUTH VIETNAMESE STUDENT - ACTIVE DUTY G.I.’S - REP FROM RESERVISTS

AND NATIONAL GUARDSMEN FOR PEACE - JOHN T. WILLIAMS - ORVILL SCHELL - LEO LAWRENCE

MUSIC: OSCEOLA ICE - AND OTHERS - WOMENS STREET THEATRE

 

BRING ALL THE TROOPS HOME NOW!

VOTE YES ON ANTIWAR PROPOSITION “J” IN SAN FRANCISCO

AND “A” IN MARIN!

 

___ (I) (My Organization) endoses October 31. Organization ________________________.

___ Call me, I will help organization the demonstration. ____ I will be a monitor. 

___ Enclosed is my donation of $ ______ to help build the march.

Name  ____________________ Address _________________________Phone__________________

 

Clip and mail above to: October 31 Antiwar Coalition, 992 Valencia, S.F., 94110, 282-8160









Student Handout 11.10 March & Rally Against the War in Vietnam

 

A MULTIMODAL ANALYSIS OF “MARCH & RALLY Against the war in Vietnam”

 

EXAMINING THE PIECES. When looking at visual and multimodal texts, it can be helpful to slow down and spend some time examining various elements of the texts to deepen our understanding of the texts’ overall effects. Take some time to think through each of the following components of “March & Rally Against the War in Vietnam.” 

Language: First, notice the words and phrases included on the poster and jot notes below.

  • What text (or kind of text) do you see?

  • Why do you think the organizers want to “Bring All the Troops Home Now!”?

 

 Image: Next, consider the images on the flyer and jot notes below.

  • What images do you see?

  • What might the various components symbolize and how do they relate to one another?

  • What do you notice about color, placement, or other artistic choices related to the images?

 

Text Features: Finally, think about how the text is presented on the page and jot notes below.

  •  What do you notice about text size, placement, use of bold or italics, capitalization, color, etc.?

 

EVALUATING OVERALL EFFECT. Now that you have thought about each component of the poster’s design, you are in a better position to consider its overall meaning. Compose a few sentences in response to one or more of the following questions:

  • What is the message of the poster?

  • How were the organizers attempting to mobilize people to action?

  • What were the various ways that people were encouraged to participate?

  • How did the war in Vietnam affect movements for equality at home?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Optional Student Handout 11.10 Civil Rights Movements

Graphic Organizer for Problem-Solving Group Work

Use evidence from the documents and your prior knowledge from readings, notes, and class activities to complete this organizer. Use specific examples for each category.

 

Goals

Organizational 

Strategies

Forms of Resistance

Members

Achievements

LGBTQ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 











Chicano/Chicana 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 











Native Americans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 











Feminism

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 












People with Disabilities

       











Asian Americans

       












African Americans

         

11.10  Teacher Key 

A MULTIMODAL ANALYSIS OF “MARCH & RALLY Against the war in Vietnam” 

EXAMINING THE PIECES. When looking at visual and multimodal texts, it can be helpful to slow down and spend some time examining various elements of the texts to deepen our understanding of the texts’ overall effects. Take some time to think through each of the following components of “March & Rally Against the War in Vietnam.” 

Language: First, notice the words and phrases included on the poster and jot notes below.

  • What text (or kind of text) do you see?

    • Information (title, location, time, list of presenters, call to action), some persuasive language.

  • Why do you think the organizers want to “Bring All the Troops Home Now!”?

    • Growing opposition to war at home and abroad, rising death rates of American soldiers and Vietnamese civilians, disproportionate number soldiers of color fighting and dying in the war, concerns about conduct of American soldiers, questions about the purpose of the war

 Image: Next, consider the images on the flyer and jot notes below.

  • What images do you see?

    • A peace sign, a group of anti-war protestors, a soldier returning home to his family

  • What might the various components symbolize and how do they relate to one another?

    • The organizers are suggesting that by mobilizing, marching, and protesting anti-war protestors could bring peace and therefore bring soldiers home to their families.

  •  What do you notice about color, placement, or other artistic choices related to the images?

    • They are arranged in such an order so as to suggest that marching and mobilizing is necessary to bring the next steps (peace and the return of the soldiers). 

Text Features: Finally, think about how the text is presented on the page and jot notes below.

  •  What do you notice about text size, placement, use of bold or italics, capitalization, color, etc.?

    • The title, Oct. 31, and the location and time are bolded to emphasize this information as important. The call to action for voting is also bolded to emphasize the need for action. The bottom portion of the text is bordered with a frame so that it can be cut out and mailed. 

 

EVALUATING OVERALL EFFECT. Now that you have thought about each component of the poster’s design, you are in a better position to consider its overall meaning. Compose a few sentences in response to one or more of the following questions:

 

  • What is the message of the poster?

    • The poster is urging people to action to protest the Vietnam War.

  • How were the organizers attempting to mobilize people to action?

    • By emphasizing the goal of peace and bringing soldiers home to their families. 

  • What were the various ways that people were encouraged to participate?

    • The organizers are inviting people to march, rally, vote, donate, or help organize the event.

  • How did the war in Vietnam affect movements for equality at home?

    • Responses will vary, but students might note that opposition to the war grew out of concerns about the purpose of the war and the growing number of casualties (military and civilian). Anti-war activists also called attention to issues of inequality by noting the disproportionate number of individuals of color who were being sent to fight the war. The war came to symbolize the oppression of people of color both at home and abroad. The tactic of marching and rallying was both borrowed from and inspired similar actions by other movements for equality.